I am learning Guitar too but all the scale stuff I learned on my keyboard lessons ( over two years ago). I will say I tried this years ago and go lost and boggled so stopped the guitar then. Today, coming from keyboard, it all makes sense now. It is so much easier to understand the Scales, intervals, triads and chord progressions on a keyboard.
A major scale uses the pattern like you said .. no matter which note you start on.
The Natural Minor uses the pattern you have too.
Your chord progressions generally use the I chord, the IV chord, The V chord, The V7 chord and at times you'll see the VI chord in there.
In the C Major scale this would be C Major chord, F Major chord, G Major chord, G7 Chord, and Am Chord.
The Relative Minor is the 6th note of the major scale, so in the Key of C Major the relative minor is Am - That is the Natural Minor Scale.
Intervals are measured in half steps and I learned to look for patterns like the 3rd has the same pattern so look to the bottom note and the pattern and I will know it is a 3rd up from low C, for example.
You will know a Tiad consist of two intervals - A Third, and A Fifth. Inversions are swithching the notes of a Triad around so you have the next note in the triad as the base note.
Trust me, learn all of this on keyboard and it will be so much easier - then apply it on guitar.....