I've never seen any books or lessons that teach all these items in a graduated format, beginning to advanced guitar: scales, chords, and arpeggios, and how to use them in one course or lesson. Each lesson would consider scales, chords, and arpeggios in the same lesson.
Obviously, there's no end to theory, but I'd like to see lessons of this sort, each one complete in itself from beginner or intermediate to advanced [insorar as is possible]. After all, music theory is one of those deliciously infinite concepts humans have conceived of.
For example, a lesson could start with the major scale, its chords and arpeggios, and how to apply them in one lesson. The course would continue in a graduated way so that one could learn theory as far as one could go. [As I said, guitar theory would be impossible to completely cover, but I think this would be an ongoing, digestible way to present guitar theory.]
These lessons would NOT include sheet reading alone, but WOULD include standard notation and TAB.
May you always love playing and learning the wonderful guitar instrument, Fly On The Moon
Any good guitar curriculum is applied guitar theory.
Music theory is the set of concepts that describes the nature of musical events. It is the process of mentally identifying the sounds that occur in music. We do this in order to build a consistent set of ideas to describe what happens in music. So if you follow the Guitar Fundamentals courses here at GT you will find that the theory concepts are integrated into the material along with the way.
My GF 2 course in particular will show you the fundamental concepts of scales, chords, reading music, etc. (all foundation theory concepts) along with practical exercises that you use to apply those ideas in a musical context.
That course is beginner level material. Keep in mind that your theory learning should keep pace with your physical skills, your ability to apply the ideas you are learning. That's another element of a good curriculum. Making sure you get enough ideas to apply to the level you are currently at while helping prepare you for the next level of concepts & skills.
As you watch it consider which of these 3 options fit your situation.
If your conceptual understanding or your playing skills are below the material in the above course, then that's a great place to start.
If your skills are above that material, but your conceptual understanding is not, then it will be a good way to learn those concepts while you get exercises to apply them.
If you understand the concepts but your skill level isn't there yet, then it will be a great place to review & solidify the ideas while you build your skills to catch up to your theory knowledge.
It's also possible you are an absolute beginner which means you should probably start at GF1.
Once, (or if!) you have all that theory knowledge & practical skills under your command, you can move on to more advanced & specialized topics. I have collections of tutorials that address topics like triad chords & inversions, scale patterns covering the fretboard, learning to improvise, learning lead guitar, etc.
There's also a stand alone tutorial that provides a brief overview of music theory, what it consists of at all levels.
Ultimately how much theory any student learns depends on their individual skill level & musical goals. So when you mention:
"For example, a lesson could start with the major scale, its chords and arpeggios, and how to apply them in one lesson."
My tutorial on Scales & Chord Relationships (in the GF2 course linked above & the Music Theory collection) does just that at a beginner level. And my later lessons also integrate those ideas in a practical ways at more intermediate & advanced levels.
Take it one step at a time. Make sure your theory & practice keep pace with each other. Please ask more if necessary & best of success with your guitar learning & playing!
Music theory is a super powerful tool for guitar players. It helps you navigate the fretboard, makes it easier to communicate with other musicians and deepens your understanding of music. In short: music theory can make you into a better guitarist and musician.
I agree that theory is important. However, with music we need to learn to feel more. Theory will only be a tool to help us improve our skills. And a good piece of music comes from the way we perceive and interpret it.